Many studies are on to understand the broad dynamics that governed the formation of the solar system, especially the early phase when planets were formed. That phase is marked as most interesting as it carries many mysteries in terms of the appearance of multiple "flavors" of iron in the planets and planetary bodies.
According to a new study, the Earth's core was formed through a process called differentiation when denser materials such as iron sunk to the center and became the core, paving the way for a three-tier structure in terms of core, upper mantle, and crust.
That study says a microcosm of the solar system's puberty and the process of planet formation and the creation of cores can be gleaned from the deeper understanding of the differentiation process and its role in forming different flavors of iron.
Using laboratory tools, the researchers recreated the interior conditions of the Earth and planets while investigating why iron isotopic ratios were varying when different planets were formed.
The study by Stephen Elardo and Anat Shahar of the Carnegie Institution for Science has been published by Nature Geoscience.
It calls for more focus on the iron chemistry in explaining differences in the variations of iron isotopes found in ancient rocks and minerals on Earth, on Moon and other planets.
According to the researchers, during differentiation, iron with its high density leaped to the center and a multi-layer structure of the planet got formed.
"There's still a lot to learn about the geochemical evolution of planets," Elardo said.
He said laboratory experiments could probe the mysterious depths of Earth in understanding how planetary interiors were formed and how they transformed with time. The study says rocky planets including Earth were formed from the accretion of matter surrounding Sun.
What Is Isotope?
Isotopes of elements carry fixed number of protons but the number of neutrons will differ and so will be the masses. These mass differences called in more selective reactions and the ratio variation also reflected in the final products of those reactions.
The study points to the drastic variation in iron isotope ratios in samples of hardened lava that oozed from Earth's upper mantle and those of meteorites, the Moon, asteroids, and Mars as a mystery.
The research holds the view that the chemistry behind the moon-forming impact can also be traced to the changes in the solar nebula.
At the laboratory, tools aped the conditions inside the Earth and planets to find out why iron isotopic ratios changed under different planetary formations.
Their analysis revealed nickel as the main variable in the mystery. During the core formation of the moon, Mars, and the asteroid Vesta, the reaction with nickel had more of lighter iron isotopes and that is how the lighter versions showed up in the mantle.
However, it was found in the lab that while forming Earth's core, the hotter and high-pressure conditions brushed away the nickel factor explaining the differences in the iron isotope variations in the lavas from Earth and that of other planetary bodies.