Dark matter is hypothetical matter than cannot be seen but that makes the most of the universe. Scientists have released a map of the dark matter in the cosmos and stressed on its importance.

Scientists suggest that dark matter is made of particles that do not reflect, emit or absorb light. Dark matter cannot be sensed by observing electromagnetic radiation and is not directly visible. However, scientists are aware of its presence due to the effect it has on other objects of the universe. Understanding dark matter is one of the biggest challenges that astronomers face. A better understanding of dark matter may help scientists understand many other mysteries of the universe.

The Dark Energy Survey (DES) that released the dark matter map suggests that the map is a significant step in understanding dark matter. Chihway Chang of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich suggests that the map can help in understand how galaxies evolve.

"Our analysis so far is in line with what the current picture of the universe predicts," says Chang. "Zooming into the maps, we have measured how dark matter envelops galaxies of different types and how together they evolve over cosmic time. We are eager to use the new data coming in to make much stricter tests of theoretical models."

Scientists suggest that galaxies form where there is large concentration of dark matter. The universe has much more dark matter or invisible matter in comparison with visible matter. However, it is the invisible matter that is holding galaxies together and scientists need to understand how.

Understanding invisible dark matter is difficult; however, it is not impossible. Physicists and cosmologists study dark matter by its effects on other objects. The Lambda Cold Dark Matter theory about the formation and origination of galaxies suggests that there are some bigger satellite galaxies that are located near the Milky Way. Such galaxies are present and can be viewed from the Earth but cannot be seen due to dark matter. Vital information can be gathered if such galaxies can be observed.

The DES has just completed two years and its early observations covers only three percent of the area of sky that will be documented. In future years, scientists will be able to make further observations and test cosmological theories. 

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